Low Friction Handling Dynamics
- Check participant expectation and experience
- Activities introduced clearly and precisely; confirm understanding
- Assess confidence and ability levels of the participant
- Ensure coaching techniques and activities adapted to participant
- Develop thought process and driving skills of the participant, use of discussion points, use of demonstrations from the Driving Specialist, debriefing
- Include Q&A session
- Constructive feedback
- Clear understanding of risk assessments; any new or temporary hazards identified.
- Continuously assessing area before, during and after activity
- Clear explanation of each activity before driving activity commences, and confirm understanding
- Knows all relevant exercises for each area
- Reads participant confidence levels well, manages over or under confidence
- Doesn't start any driving activity if a participant is not clear on the instructions
Dealing with a problematic guest
- Able to deal with a difficult participant, including verbal intervention.
- Communicates issues clearly and manages situation courteously, confidently and effectively.
- If participant continues to drive in a unacceptable way, gives clear and authoratative verbal warning that driving experience will be terminated if behaviour persists.
- Able to brake or take control of the steering wheel from the participant if necessary
- Knows the drive termination procedure, including correct people to notify and any documentation as necessary.
Participant Pedals Check
- Ensure vehicle is in park before the pedal familiarisation exercise.
- Participant run through pedal familiarisation before driving.
- The Driving Specialist is to carry out a static brake test with the guest to ensure they can apply the brake as quickly as possible prior to the driving experience.
- The pedal familiarisation repeated as relevant
Exercises on Low Friction Facilities
General Principles to be considered with all dynamic exercises
- Clear explanation for each exercise and the learning points being developed; demo if relevant
- Ensure vehicle is positioned in a safe area while briefing, not obstructing other vehicles
- Avoid holding up other participants by ensuring participant is ready before, and clears area promptly after, the exercise
- Check participant has full understanding and is happy to proceed before exercise.
- Does not ask a participant to proceed if they are unsure of the activity or do not want to participate
- Explain safety technology effectively, use open ended questions to help participants follow own learning path
- Participant helped to develop skills at own pace, aligned with experience and ability
- Aims to keep driving activities within defined areas.
- Ensure activities are related to appropriate driving scenarios
- Only carries out exercises on low friction facilities when the facilities are wet
- Correct protocol to activate wet facilities.
- Encourages mechanical sympathy during activities
- Relate exercises to appropriate real life scenarios
- Uses coaching methods effectively to build participant understanding and skills
- Effective discussion of learning points from each exercise
Straight Line Wet Grip
Specific Principles for Straight Line Wet Grip area (SLWG)
- Ensures only one car on exercise area at any one time
- Ensures that any speed restrictions are communicated and respected
- Ensure the safety systems are kept on until the driving activity has been briefed and participant is aware when safety systems are turned off
- Recap on pedal exercise prior to braking exercises
- Indicate correct brake point
Specific Principles for Emergency Stop and ABS
- Provide an effective explanation of contributing factors during firm braking on low friction surface
- The guest should be coached through what they may hear and feel such as ABS.
- Good explanation of ABS and Stability Control technology
- Able to effectively demonstrate stability and ABS systems
- Route through the slalom clearly communicated
- Advise appropriate speed for the exercise.
- Weight transfer and tyre behaviour communicated effectively
- Looking ahead communicated and developed effectively
- Steering lines communicated and developed effectively
Specific Principles for Acceleration from rest in SLWG
- Throttle control developed, give understanding of how throttle input affects the balance of the vehicle.
- Give effective experience of the cars stability systems while accelerating from rest on a slippery surface.
- Develop understanding of interaction of steering and throttle inputs at limit of grip
Specific Principles for Split grip acceleration (Split Mu Acceleration)
- The vehicles stability systems explored while accelerating.
- Activity performed with the vehicles safety systems on
- Develop understanding of interaction of steering and throttle inputs on mixed surfaces
Specific Principles for Split friction braking (Split Mu Braking)
- The participant given insight into the degree to which the safety systems compensate for the directional instability and how much steering input is needed to straighten the car.
- Ensures participant uses both hands on the steering wheel
- Develop participant understanding of interaction of steering and brake inputs on mixed surfaces
ESP Slalom/Steer on Slippery Surface
- Discuss contributory factors to grip levels in slippery conditions.
- Reveal how smooth steering avoids loss of drip or ESP activation
- Explore how speed effects steering, control and ESP activation.
- Impact of higher speed or harsher steering on stability and grip
- Appropriate repetitions with variations to highlight contributing factors to loss of grip and ESP activation.
Specific Principles for T-junction pull out
- Relate to pulling out of an icy T-junction to create context for the exercise
- Stability programs shown both on and off; gives clear understanding of how systems affect stability
- Emphasis that safety systems are there as an emergency backup and should not be relied on for control - activation = loss of control
- Uses exercise to highlight throttle control during acceleration
Specific Principles for Safety Systems on brake and avoid ESP
- Relate to a real life accident-avoidance situation
- Effectively communicate ABS and stability system action while steering and braking on a slippery surface.
- The participant advised correct steering inputs
- Activity performed with the vehicles safety systems activated
- Feedback discussion to confirm knowledge and understanding.
- Clear demonstration of 4 Wheel drive advantages
- Mechanical understanding
- Natural understeer highlighted to show risk is not eliminated in all wheel drive cars.
Relating to Road Driving
- Use real life scenarios during driving activities to bring to life
- Low friction dynamic areas used to help participant recognise and anticipate risks, and understand how road conditions can affect the car's stability and grip.
Parallel Braking (dry. V. wet)
- Discuss how grip and speed relate to braking distance.
- Same speed should be used for each repetition to highlight braking distances
- Exercise should give clear understanding of ABS and how to maximise control
- Brake control, sensitivity and grip level awareness should all be discussed and developed during the activity.
Specific Principles for Wet Circle area
General Performance Criteria
- Driving Specialist knows the breakaway speed on the circle.
- No more than 2 vehicles use the circle simultaneously maintaining safe gap between vehicles.
- Minimise time spent stationary on the circle
- Sessions on the circle should be timed appropriately, giving way to waiting vehicles to allow effective throughput.
- Safety systems can be turned off on the circle
- Appropriate period of orientation explaining the basic principles of the circle, explaining were the low friction and normal tarmac is.
- Explains high forces can be experienced when the car slides from the treated area onto the normal tarmac
- Good observation and awareness of other vehicle
Specific Principles for Understeer and Oversteer Exercises
- Develop understanding of what happens to the vehicle at the limit of grip, improving throttle control and sensitivity.
- Understeer and oversteer clearly explained and experienced
- Safety systems explored giving clear understanding of how safety systems operate.
- Clear explanation of how weight transfer effects grip and how to influence this; exercises to bring this to life
- Introduces techniques to recover a vehicle from understeer or oversteer.
Specific Principles for Contributing factors to loss of grip
- Develop understanding of loss of grip as a result of throttle, brake and steering input.
- Explore effects of harsh and smooth steering inputs on grip and stability
- Explore effects of harsh and smooth throttle inputs on grip and stability
- Explore effects of harsh and smooth brake inputs on grip and stability
- Explore how speed effects grip
- Skid correction v. not losing control and effects on progress
Braking into a slippery corner
- Develop understanding of braking in a corner
- Explore steering during maximum braking on a slippery road surface
- Explore stability while cornering and braking on a slippery road surface.
- Experience how traction systems work to counteract understeer and oversteer when limit of grip is exceeded
- Develop understanding of brake pressure needed to maintain control without activating safety systems.
Power induced loss of grip
- Explore effects of acceleration while on a slippery surface.
- Explore directional stability during acceleration in a corner, and how these effects can be minimised.
- Clearly explain traction support systems interventions during acceleration and turning on a slippery surface, and exercises to experience, showing how different driving techniques produce different effects.
Split Mu Traction and Braking
- Show how safety systems compensate for uneven grip
- Develop feel for steering inputs effects during split mu exercises
- Discuss ways to read the road and the conditions and react accordingly
Balanced Throttle Control
- Work to develop feel for the throttle and grip levels to maintain traction while turning
- Discussion on factors that interact to give balanced throttle control.
AWD Benefits (All Wheel Drive)
- All-wheel drive benefits explained clearly
- Explore feel of the car and discuss what feels different about it
- Extra control and reasons for it
- Natural understeer highlighted